What are the Parts of Printed Circuit Boards?

Printed circuit boardsA printed circuit board or may be called as a wire board or wire card is one of the most fundamental parts of an electronic machine or equipment. With this electronic device, the entire machine may function with the help of the electricity that it manufactures. With the connection of the colorful wires, all of which are colored for representation, and all the components on the board, the entire printed circuit board may already run a big machine. A circuit board may look really complex, however, the truth is, there are only few parts on it and some of those are really basic.

It is important to understand the parts of a printed circuit board. It does not need an electrician, technician or engineer to understand these. One must have some basic knowledge about it and all its functions in case there is an emergency or some sort of malfunction in the machineries.

In analyzing the parts of the printed circuit board, it may be noticeable that it looks like cake with lots of layers.To know more about the parts of pcb’s visit www.pcbnet.com.

Circuit boards may come in different layers.

Some are single; some are double while some who have lots of components go as multi-layer. Now, these layers comprise of the different materials used to make a circuit board function. They are actually separated boards laminated together with the help if heat and adhesive.

First is the FR4 or the base material of the board. It is also called as the substrate and is commonly made of fiberglass. With this board or FR4, the entire printed circuit board is rigid and thick enough to hold all the components and the wires intact. The thickness of the board actually depends on the base. Most of the time, the circuit boards are about 1.6mm while some are only .8mm thick boards.

However, cheaper circuit boards or commonly known as perf boards are made of other materials like the epoxies or the phenolics. These boards may be less expensive but it is not as durable as the high-quality FR4. So how does one know if he or she got a poor type of circuit board? The cheap boards smell bad when being soldered and they may be purchased in the low-end electronic shops that sell cheap devices and materials. These boards may be cheaper and friendlier to the pocket but the fact that they use phenolics put everyone’s health on danger as phenolics actually has a low thermal decomposition temperature which may lead to smoke, char and delaminate the board when held too long in the process of soldering.

Another part is the copper which is actually the thin layer of copper foil laminated on the board. The copper is one of the most important parts. When one talks about the layers of the printed circuit board, it is actually the layers of the board. Copper is the one being melted with the help of the soldering paste. Its thickness depends and it is classified in weight specifically in ounces per square foot. Most of the circuit boards have 1 ounce of copper per square foot while some goes for up to 2 or 3 ounce copper. For a more specified measurement of the copper, ounce per square is commonly up to 35 micrometers.

Third part is the soldermask layer or the layer on the top of the copper foil. It is the colored part of the circuit board and is the one which has the traces for the components. With this soldermask layer, the traces are all ensured to be precise. Most of the time, the soldermask follows the color green.

The last part is the white silkscreen that is applied on the soldermask layer. With this, the letters, numbers and the symbols on the circuit board is added. The silkscreen helps in the identification of the components and the wires on the board. Conventional color of the silkscreen is white but other colors may also be used.

The Coins and the Authorities

History narrates the origins of the challenge coins as those that have been started by the military. Its branches have spread out, and some of these coins have been given out by the government, specifically the President of the United States (moving forward – referred to as POTUS), Vice President of the United States (VPOTUS), and the other White House staff.

Brief History

coinsChallenge coins were first introduced by President Bill Clinton, next is President Bush, and after him, President Obama. The first VPOTUS who made the coins was VP Cheney. A small number of these kinds of coins have been created compared to Presidential coins (commemorative, inaugural and tokens) on which thousands have been manufactured.

Both the POTUS and the VPOTUS usually only gave these coins to Military members, to their families, some dignitaries, and to those who have exhibited their support and loyalty to the country in their own ways.

Coins Issued by the POTUS

Here are the coins issued for Barrack Obama:

It has been said that coins given by Barrack Obama are a tough catch. It’s even a treat to see him give one to his men, and witness the encounter end with an electric smile. The stash of coins is carried inside the pants’ left pocket on the front side. A coin is quickly retrieved by the left hand, transferred to the right hand, and then the ‘secret handshake’ starts. Before, the handshake was somehow awkward for Obama, but now the technique is definitely more developed.

He also placed coins on the soldiers’ memorials – soldiers who were killed in the Fort Hood shooting in 2009. He also leaves these coins on fallen US soldiers’ graves to honor their contribution to the country.

Here are the coins issued for George W. Bush:

The former POTUS George W. Bush was said to reserve his stash of challenge coins for those wounded servicemen. He had a small stack of coins with him almost all the time, like those of poker chips on his desk for quick draws. If you see someone who has coins given by George W. Bush, most likely that person got wounded in combat, hence definitely deserving of the coin.
In 2007, during the former POTUS’s short yet unexpected visits, instead of giving a challenge coin, President Bush received one from one of those Marine Control Units. This was in Iraq’s An bar province, specifically in Al-Assad Airbase.

Here are some of the coins issued by Bill Clinton:

Former POTUS Bill Clinton had various racks full of these coins mostly given to him by service members. The racks can be found behind his desk in the Oval Office. The coins are currently displayed inside the Clinton Library.

An Established Custom

The act of handing out these challenge coins is a ritual that has been present in the military for a long time. Aside from the previously displayed presidential coins (which are understandably the ones that are most coveted), lawmakers and high-ranking officials are also said to distribute them.

To add, the POTUS have given these souvenir coins to diplomats and foreign dignitaries as an indication of welcoming and honorary membership.

Already Within Reach

If after all that you’ve witnessed made you want a challenge coin for your own collection, fear no more. It’s not too difficult to have these coins. Again, you don’t have to be a diplomat or a soldier to obtain one.

As previously mentioned, having coins like these no longer need you to take the heroic and/or violent path. You can now easily request and purchase one. These types of souvenir coins are available at stores today.

Have your own challenge coins and show your patriotism and loyalty.

Author Bio:
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How to Spot the Perfect Golf Shoes

Golf shoes are not strictly needed in playing the sport. A typical sneaker or pair of tennis shoes will do. What is needed is a pair that has traction and is comfortable while worn. However, these shoes wear out over time, especially because they are not exclusively made for playing the sport.

Golf shoeThere is a need then to design a pair that is to be used exclusively for swinging a golf club, a pair that works best on the course. For serious players, it is a good idea to invest in one pair. It helps a player maintain balance and stability in his swing, while maintaining comfort during the stroll on the golf course.

Thinking of buying yourself a pair? Read on and discover the basics of buying your very first golf shoes.

The first step is knowing your size

This is essential in buying any footwear, of course. However, as with any other special pair of shoes it must be noted that this pair might fit differently than your sneaker. This is due to the fact that it has larger soles and broader bases to maintain a golfer’s stability on the course.

Next, head out to a reputable sporting goods shop

Your local stores may house only a couple of good finds, but it’s worth a try. It’s always better to look at specialized shops for golfing, as these contain the widest selection of equipment for such sport. You can also ask questions from the salespeople in the store and they would be glad to assist you in finding what you need.

Try out more than one pair, and walk in it a bit to find out if it’s a good fit. You might also want to check out the spikes on the golf shoes. The importance of spikes is to hold you steady while you swing. Plastic spikes are better as these can be replaced easily and are cheaper. Metal spikes, on the other hand, are not advisable as these cause damage to the course while you stroll. Also, these spikes are harder to replace.

Look at and feel the material. Make sure that the inside of the shoes are not damaged. The most recommended material is leather as these last the longest. Above all, note that the comfort is of utmost importance in buying a pair. There’s no use in buying these pairs of shoes if they will just make you wince while you walk and damage your performance on the course.

Choose a design that does not stand out much. Remember that you are going to a game, and not to a fashion show. The standard color of golf shoes is white. A bright colored pair might also be distracting to other players. For more design and color you can visit rockbottomgolf.com.

Finally, buy some maintenance items, such as leather lotion, to keep it clean and damage free. You would want your investment to last long. It’s also very embarrassing to sport a damaged or worn out shoe on the field. You might also want to buy extra spikes to replace your pre-installed spikes once they are worn out.

Buying golf shoes is a good idea if you are seriously considering this sport. Again, it is not a requirement to play, so there are other things to consider before buying a pair. However, buying one would be a good investment for those who play regularly and participate in competitions. These can have an impact on the play and swing of the players, if the proper equipment was bought. A pair of golf shoes would not skyrocket a player to be the next golfing legend. But it can definitely help in his stance.

Patches 101 –Things You Need to Know

Patches are timeless. They have been around for a long time now and even in this day and age, they are still used and re-used for a variety of purposes. From school uniforms, jackets to totes and bags, the uses of patches are endless. Not only are they used for garments, but are also collected by many enthusiasts.

Iron on patchesPatches come in various forms, shapes, designs, and the methods of application are likewise diverse. Some are stitched, embroidered, while others are even ironed. Iron on patches are among the latest innovations in the industry. These patches are easy-to-use as well as D.I.Y-friendly.

Read on to learn more about the types of patches available on the market.

1. Embroidered patches

This is, by far, the most commonly used patch. The embroidered ones are often used in jackets, hats, and uniforms. These patches have two main parts – the twill base and the design. The design is the ‘embroidered’ part and is done using threads of various colors. The coverage amounts to be embroidered are normally categorized under 50%, 75%, and 100%. These patches are attached to garments by mechanical or manual sewing. Ironing them could also flatten down the ‘risen’ part of embroidery and is not recommended.

2. Woven Patches

They may be less popular than the famed traditional embroidered patches but these patches are also just as functional. The main difference is that with woven patches, thinner threads are used and that designs are not too embossed. This is an ideal type of patch for those who are aiming to have the same effect as the embroidered ones but with more details. For instance, letters or numbers are more visible in them. To make letters more visible on woven patches, a minimum 10 points for the font size is recommended. When designs are rather complex and require a range of colors, woven patches usually come to mind first. Photographic realism can also be achieved using this type of patch. As with the embroidered ones, it is not also necessary to iron on patches of this type.

3. Printable or Photo Patches

For those who need patches of larger dimensions, printable ones are recommended. Tiny prints, fonts, or details remain visible. Unlike with embroidered or woven patches, coverage and stitch counts are no longer a concern. There is also no limitation in terms of colors and color graduation. There are over a million of colors to choose from. Printable patches are likewise fade-proof and can be washed and dry-cleaned just like the other types of patches. Photo realism is likewise easily achieved using these custom-made patches. Printable patches are also the type that can be ironed on any kind of garment. However, printable ones go well with denim and cotton best. To iron on patches of this type, it is important to keep the iron at medium heat.

4. Specialized patches or Bullion/Badge Crests

Specialized patches or often referred to as bullion crests or badge crests are also among the top choices of military, fraternity groups or any elite groups. These specialized patches are only produced by top artisans as they require intricate designs and the use of various materials such as velvet, threads, wire, and even precious beads or gems. They are manually done by hand and usually produced in limited numbers. They take time to be produced and normally undergo a long process of designing and scheming. They are also carefully attached by hand on any kind of garments. It is not recommended to iron on patches of this kind.

Patches are generally wonderful tools that can perk up any garment. They provide visual representation of the school, organization, or institution. It is essential to know the type of patches you need for your personal or organizational use. Doing a little research on them would be helpful.

Keynotes Speakers and Their Roles

Keynote speakers are significant and integral to almost all gathering of professionals, especially those occasions intended to impart knowledge.

In any programme or invitation, their names occupy a luminous spot, often highlighted with a relatively larger font size and better font types. Some keynote speakers have established credibility in delivering great speeches. But for those who still have to gain experience, what does it take for them to earn that prestigious spot?

Keynote speakerFirst and foremost, keynote speakers must know the roles that they are playing. Knowing these things will be helpful in letting them find out how they can master the craft of this kind of public speaking.

Below is a list of roles of keynote speakers:

1. A passionate sharer of valuable wisdom

The audience must learn from them – the kind of learning wherein the crowd feels that what they have listened to has come out from the heart, and not from the brain.

2. A wise and cooperative guest

Though the speaker is a special guest, he must not take advantage of it. He must take the initiative to know the event and the audience’s demographic and psychographic information. He also cooperates with the organization’s officers, and event managers and staff before, during and even after the occasion.

3. A considerate speaker who does not laud his own

He or she must not talk about his or her achievements or future projects in life, the speech must revolve only on the theme of the occasion. The audience will get tired if the speaker keeps on talking only about himself. The speaker must consider imparting what only is relevant to the audience’s career and life itself.

4. A clever entertainer

Humors should be injected every now and then to the speech of the keynote speaker so that the audience will not dose off. Furthermore, incorporating humor into the message the speaker wants to share will establish his cleverness or wit.

He must know wisely how to integrate relevant anecdotes to his or her speech. Anecdotes back-up whatever important note the speaker has in store for the audience. These real stories add emotion and entertainment to the main part of the speech.

5. Skilled conveyor of call-to-action ideas

Keynote speakers are supposed to motivate and inspire others. They are unworthy to remember if they do not share the sense of urgency to the audience.

Speeches dotted with call-to-action statements must be delivered at the perfect pace. Deliver the speech at the perfect pace. Talking intense at the climaxes, speaking soft at tender parts – these are skills that any guest speaker must acquire.

6. A professional speaker

Even when it comes to the seemingly simplest details, like proper grooming or punctuality, every speaker must be keen in rounding up this kind of responsibilities.

This adds credibility to him as others will see that even at the littlest things, he is able to exhibit professionalism. Apart from establishing a good relationship with the event organizers, the speaker will also set up a long-lasting rapport with his listeners.

7. A grateful guest

Earning a significant portion at any occasion deserve a big “thank you” from the invited speaker. After he has given hope and boost to his listeners, he must acknowledge that he was only able to do it because he was given the opportunity to do so. The best remembered speeches are those that end with a gratifying statement.

These mentioned roles are the prime responsibilities every speaker must know for more details visit www.motivational-speaker-success.com. Mastering these roles will give anyone a set of advantages needed to become a successful speaker.

These are also the bases on how one can tell if the name listed as an occasion’s keynote speaker is worthy of that special spot in the souvenir programme.

Advertising through the Media Sign Pro for Mac

Nowadays, information is very important so it is necessary to have the means and medium to send the information out, whether it is an advertisement or information for public announcement. Digital sign software can easily help any information related problems. Digital sign software is a kind of signage wherein someone can relay information quickly. It can also change and update the information very quick.

Digital signage is an easy way to introduce your products and services for the clients. One of the many ways to advertise is by making use of browser-based software.

SoftwareRelaying information using this kind of advertisement is very useful in a lot of ways. Digital sign software used for retail purposes will allow someone to advertise his products and services easily from virtually anywhere. A digital signage will allow anyone to post their new products and services easily and if they need any further changes with their signage, updating the information will also be quickly done.

A lot of establishments make use of digital sign software. Hospitals can take advantage of digital signage when giving announcements for incoming patients. It can also serve as entertainment for boring waiting areas. Government agencies can use a digital signage to give a public announcement, show real time news and reports or to just simple advertise new attractions and services. Churches use digital signage to inform church-goers about mass schedules and important announcements. Schools, on the other hand, can quickly give important school related information and announcement to students and parents.

Developing digital sign software is not a very easy task to do. Someone who wants to create an effective one would need to have resources. A digital signage can be very easy to create but will need a reliable system and software to be able to do it. One of the most reliable software to use is the Media Sign Pro for Mac.

The Media Sign Pro for Mac is a software program which will aid anyone in creating any kind of digital signage, wherever it will be used for. It features a user friendly, easy to use interface which will enable anyone to use it with ease. Creating different signage is also very easy since the software already have pre-installed templates. You just simply need to choose one and customize it according to your needs. The Media Sign Pro for Mac can also accommodate different types of media wherein you can make your signage as interactive and informative as possible.

The Media Sign Pro is packed with a lifetime license along with it. So, there will be no need for any server connection requirements plus, no need to pay for any extra fee to continuously use the software.

The Media Sign Pro is made exclusively for the Mac, in order to ensure that the digital signage is placed in a reliable system. Anyone can take advantage of the flexibility of the Media Sign Pro with the help of a Mac. It makes the update of your signage very easy as it can be done with a few clicks. The Mac, also having a reputation to be a very powerful and stable system, will keep the user from the worry of updating the system periodically for viruses since the security system of a Mac is tough.

Having a digital signage is indeed necessary, and having the correct tool is needed. The Media Sign Pro for Mac will be the better choice if you want something that will be well worth your time and money.